An energy storage system（ESS）can provide ancillary services such as frequency regulation and reserves，as well as smooth the fluctuations of wind power outputs，and hence improve the security and economics of the power system concerned.The combined operation of a wind farm and an ESS has become a widely accepted operating mode.Hence，it appears necessary to consider this operating mode in transmission system expansion planning，and this is an issue to be systematically addressed in this work.Firstly，the relationship between the cost of the NaS based ESS and its discharging cycle life is analyzed.A strategy for the combined operation of a wind farm and an ESS is next presented，so as to have a good compromise between the operating cost of the ESS and the smoothing effect of the fluctuation of wind power outputs.Then，a transmission system expansion planning model is developed with the sum of the transmission investment costs，the investment and operating costs of ESSs and the punishment cost of lost wind energy as the objective function to be minimized.An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the developed planning model.Finally，the essential features of the developed model and adopted algorithm are demonstrated by18-bus and46-bus test systems.
|||郑静 ,文福拴 ,李力 ,等.计及风电场和储能系统联合运行的输电系统扩展规划[J].电力系统自动化,2013,37(1):135-142. DOI:10.7500/AEPS201206068.|
ZHENG Jing, WEN Fushuan, LI Li, et al. Transmission System Expansion Planning Considering Combined Operation of Wind Farms and Energy Storage Systems[J]. Automation of Electric Power Systems, 2013, 37(1):135-142. DOI:10.7500/AEPS201206068.