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基于超级电容储能控制的双馈风电机组惯量与一次调频策略
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分布式储能与微网河北省重点实验室(华北电力大学),河北省保定市 071003

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河北省自然科学基金资助项目(E2018502134 );国家电网公司总部科技项目(SGHEDK00DYJS1900061)。


Inertia and Primary Frequency Modulation Strategy of Doubly-fed Wind Turbine Based on Super-capacitor Energy Storage Control
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Affiliation:

(Hebei Key Laboratory of Distributed Energy Storage and Microgrid (North China Electric Power University), Baoding 071003, China

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This work is supported by Hebei Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. E2018502134) and State Grid Corporation of China (No. SGHEDK00DYJS1900061).

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    摘要:

    双馈感应发电机在最大功率点跟踪控制下,发电机的输出功率难以响应电网频率波动,而常规超速减载控制虽然可保留部分有功备用参与系统调频,但存在风电机组发电效益降低、转速调节范围减小及桨距角控制启动频繁等问题。为此文中结合双馈感应发电机网侧变流器的控制特性,提出了基于超级电容储能控制的双馈风电机组惯量与一次调频策略。其中,虚拟惯量调节和一次频率调节都由超级电容控制实现,无须改变或增加风电机组额外附加控制,提高了单台风电机组的致稳性和抗扰性。根据实际超级电容模组的成本和充放电效率对储能单元容量进行优化配置。通过对比评估预留备用一次调频方案的经济性,表明所提方案具有较强的经济优势。最后,通过仿真实验表明其惯量支撑和一次频率调节能力及发电效益相较于常规一次频率控制具有明显提高。

    Abstract:

    Under the maximum power point tracking control of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), the output power of DFIG is difficult to respond to grid frequency fluctuations. While, conventional overspeed load shedding control can retain active power reserve to participate in system frequency adjustment, which has the problems such as reduced power generation efficiency, small speed adjustment range and frequent start of pitch angle control. To this end, combined with the control characteristics of the grid-side converter of DFIG, this paper proposes a strategy of DFIG inertia and primary frequency regulation based on supercapacitor energy storage control. Both the virtual inertia adjustment and the primary frequency adjustment are realized by supercapacitor control and there is no need to change or increase the additional control of the wind turbines, which improves the disturbance resistance and self-stabilizing of the single wind turbine. According to the actual cost of the supercapacitor module and charging/discharging efficiency, the capacity of the energy storage unit is optimized. By comparing and evaluating the economics of the primary frequency modulation scheme of active power reserve, the proposed scheme has strong economic advantages. Finally, the simulation experiments show that its inertia support, primary frequency adjustment capability and power generation efficiency are significantly improved compared to conventional primary frequency control.

    表 6 Table 6
    表 1 负荷突增100 MW时的响应性能指标Table 1 Response performance indices when load is increased by 100 MW
    表 5 Table 5
    表 2 负荷突减180 MW时响应性能指标Table 2 Response performance indices when load is reduced by 200 MW
    表 4 Table 4
    表 3 Table 3
    图1 不同类型储能的功率范围以及充放电时间尺度Fig.1 Power ranges and time scales of charging and discharging for various energy storage types
    图2 DFIG的储能配置Fig.2 Energy storage configuration of DFIG
    图3 基于超级电容储能装置的风电机组惯量与一次调频策略框图Fig.3 Block diagram of inertia of wind turbines and primary frequency modulation strategy based on super capacitor energy storage device
    图4 负荷突增100 MW下系统频率偏差Fig.4 System frequency deviation at a sudden load increase of 100 MW
    图5 负荷突减180 MW下系统频率偏差Fig.5 System frequency deviation at a sudden load drop of 180 MW
    图 风机减载调频曲线图Fig. Control structure for traditional primary frequency modulation
    图 减载控制原理图Fig. Load shedding control schematic
    图 基于虚拟惯量控制的DFIG控制图Fig. DFIG control block diagram based on virtual inertia control
    图 超级电容储能系统的控制策略Fig. Control strategy of super capacitor energy storage system
    图 超级电容储能装置的效率曲线Fig. Efficiency curve of super capacitor energy storage device
    图 含双馈风电场的4机2区域系统Fig. 4-machine 2-area system with doubly-fed wind farm
    图 (未)配置超级电容储能装置的双馈风电机组输出功率曲线Fig. Diagram of the output power curve of the doubly-fed wind turbine with (not) supercapacitor energy storage device
    图 超级电容器参数值Fig. Super capacitor parameter value
    图 负荷增加100MW下风电机组响应对比Fig. System frequency deviation
    图 (未)配置超级电容储能装置的双馈风电机组输出功率曲线Fig. Diagram of the output power curve of the doubly-fed wind turbine with (not) supercapacitor energy storage device
    图 超级电容器参数值Fig. Super capacitor parameter value
    图 负荷减小180MW下风电机组响应对比Fig. System frequency deviation
    图 系统频率偏差Fig. System frequency deviation
    图 源-荷波动下风电机组响应对比Fig. Wind turbine response comparison under load fluctuation and wind speed fluctuation
    图 超级电容储能系统电路框图Fig. Circuit diagram of supercapacitor energy storage system
    图 Buck电路等效模式Fig. Equivalent mode of Buck circuit
    图 Boost电路等效模式Fig. Boost circuit equivalent mode
    图 负荷减小极端工况下系统频率响应曲线Fig. Frequency response curve of the system under load reduction and extreme conditions
    图 极端工况下超级电容器参数值Fig. Parameter value of super capacitor under extreme conditions
    图 负荷增加极端工况下系统频率响应曲线Fig. Frequency response curve of the system under extreme load conditions
    图 极端工况下超级电容器参数值Fig. Parameter value of super capacitor under extreme conditions
    表 8 Table 8
    表 9 Table 9
    表 7 Table 7
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引用本文

颜湘武,崔森,宋子君,等.基于超级电容储能控制的双馈风电机组惯量与一次调频策略[J/OL].电力系统自动化,http://doi.org/10.7500/AEPS20200120001.
YAN Xiangwu,CUI Sen,SONG Zijun,et al.Inertia and Primary Frequency Modulation Strategy of Doubly-fed Wind Turbine Based on Super-capacitor Energy Storage Control[J/OL].Automation of Electric Power Systems,http://doi.org/10.7500/AEPS20200120001.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-01-20
  • 最后修改日期:2020-04-28
  • 录用日期:2020-03-19
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