1.集美大学 体育学院;2.北京体育大学 运动人体科学学院;3.中国老龄科学研究中心;4.昆山多威体育用品有限公司
摘要：目的 对老年男性受试者在穿着实验改良鞋进行快走运动时的鞋舒适性和安全性进行评估，为接下来的鞋再设计提供数据参考。方法 选取穿着三款不同老年运动鞋的16名年龄在55～65岁的男性受试者，使用100mm VAS评分和足底压力参数从主观舒适性和生物力学进行综合评价。使用垂直地面反作用力、压力中心位移和可利用摩擦系数分别从冲击衰减特性、步态稳定性和鞋子防滑性三方面对老年运动鞋的安全性进行评价。结果 在第2-5趾骨区，B鞋的平均压力、平均/峰值压强均显著低于A鞋；在第2-4跖骨区，B鞋的峰值压强显著低于C鞋；在第5跖骨区，C鞋的平均压力、峰值压强均显著低于A鞋和B鞋；在足弓内侧区，C 鞋的平均压力显著高于A鞋和B鞋；外侧区，B鞋的平均压力显著低于C鞋，峰值压强显著低于A鞋。三双鞋的垂直地面反作用力第一力值存在显著性差异；B鞋的垂直地面反作用力第二峰值显著低于C鞋。C鞋的COPX-LR显著高于与A鞋和B鞋，COPXD显著低于B鞋。B鞋的脚掌蹬伸摩擦系数峰值显著高于A鞋和C鞋，C鞋着地阶段峰值时刻显著慢于B鞋。结论 B鞋具有不错的舒适安全表现，但仍需进一步的改进以减少第5趾骨区的足底压力。当为老年人设计鞋子时，为达到减震缓冲效果而仅采取厚底设计，可能会给老年人的步态稳定性带来负面的影响。
Abstract: Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the comfort and safety of elderly male subjects wearing experimental modified shoes for fast walking through biomechanics testing methods, so as to provide data reference for the next shoe redesign. Methods Perform a series of exercise biomechanics tests for 16 male subjects aged 55 to 65 years old wearing three different senior sneakers. Applying 100mm VAS score and plantar pressure parameters to evaluate the senior sneakers in terms of subjective comfort and biomechanics comfort comprehensively. Applying vertical ground reaction force, plantar center of pressure displacement and available friction coefficient to evaluate the comfort of senior sneakers in terms of attenuation characteristics, gait stability and sneaker slip resistance comprehensively. Results B shoes was significantly lower than A shoes in the average pressure and peak pressure in the 2nd – 5th toe bone area. In the 2-4 metatarsal region, shoes B were significant lower than shoes C in peak pressure; in the fifth metatarsal region, the average pressure and peak pressure of shoes C were significantly lower than those of shoes A and B; in the medial area of foot arch, the average force/pressure of C shoes was significantly higher than those of shoes A and B ; on the outside of the arch area, the average pressure of shoes B was significantly lower than that of shoes C, and the peak pressure was significantly lower than that of shoes A. ABC three pairs of shoes in vertical ground reaction force first, force values are significant differences; C shoes was significant higher than B shoes in the second vertical ground reaction force peak. COPX-LR of C shoes was significantly higher than A and B shoes, COPXD was significantly lower than B shoes. The results of friction coefficient show that the peak value of the palm stretching friction coefficient of B shoes was significantly higher than that of A and C shoes, and the peak time of C shoes and landing stage was significantly slower than that of B shoes. Conclusions B shoes have good comfort and safety performance, and achieve the expected results. However, further improvement is needed to reduce plantar pressure in the fifth toe bone area. When designing shoes, if only thickness design is adopted to achieve the damping buffer effect, it may have a negative impact on the gait stability of the elderly.