Comparative Analysis of Biomechanical Characteristics of Gaitin Elderly People With or Without Falling History

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    Objective To explore the characteristics of gait parameters of the elderly with and without a history of falls through the simultaneous measurement and analysis of gait kinematics and dynamics of the elderly with and without a history of falls, so as to provide theoretical and practical basis for fall prevention and control and functional exercise of the elderly. Methods: 284 elderly people over 60 years old were recruited in residential communities and apartments for the elderly as the study subjects, and the samples were divided into F group (with a fall history) and NF group (without a fall history) according to the fall history in the past 12 months. The basic information of subjects" fall history, medical history and exercise habits were collected through questionnaires, and the kinematics and dynamics parameters of subjects" natural walking gait were obtained by 3D video analysis and dynamic plantar pressure measurement. The test data were analyzed by independent sample t-test for the differences of various factors between groups. Results: The dynamic parameters of left foot first metatarsal peak force (1.50 ± 1.25) N, lateral heel impulse (L=1.10 ± 0.62, R=1.12 ± 0.64) Ns, right toe impulse (1.10 ± 0.62) Ns in group F were significantly different from those in group NF (P<0.05); The force bearing area of the second metatarsal of the right foot (11.00 ± 2.37) cm2, the contact time of the left foot in the buffer period (394.91 ± 199.73) ms, the contact time of the right foot in the front foot (108.69 ± 61.69) ms, the right foot transverse COP (pressure center) track (35.61 ± 7.26) mm, the left foot contact hip angle (170.31 ± 5.52) 0 The kinematic parameters such as the displacement of the peak pressure point COM (body center of gravity) of both feet (L=210.53 ± 11.78, R=220.66 ± 11.89) mm were significantly different from those of the NF group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with the elderly without a history of falls, the elderly with a history of falls have longer foot contact time, lower stability of support during the transition period, increased lateral displacement of pressure center, and decreased displacement of center of gravity in the direction of travel, which may mean that the lower limb muscle strength of the elderly is decreased, the lateral swing of foot is increased, and the walking propulsion is reduced, which may lead to compensatory changes in posture control strategies and increase potential fall risk.

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  • Received:March 09,2023
  • Revised:April 05,2023
  • Adopted:April 13,2023
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